Research conducted by The SMS Works reveals 57% of the monetary penalty notices issued by the ICO in the last 2-years remain unpaid. The total amount of unpaid overdue fines adds up to £5.1m. A total of £6.994m fines were issued between January 2020 and September 2021, of which £5.18m are outstanding, with only £1.8m settled. Speaking to The Register, the ICO said, "Organisations have the right to appeal any regulatory action issued by the ICO and this can delay payment of a fine. Many nuisance call companies fined under Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations go into liquidation." However, while this leaves an unpaid bill, the source of the nuisance calls has been removed.